Correlation between Blood Pressure and Obesity Parameter against Cystatin-C and Adiponectin Levels in Serum of Obese Adolescent

Ridwan Ridwan, Ami Febriza, Elmiana Bongga Linggi, Rosdiana Natzir, Nurpudji Astuti Tazlim

Abstract


Background: Obesity contributes to the increased risk of chronic kidney and systemic inflammation. This condition can occur in obese adolescents. Most researches of cystatin-C (cys-C) and adiponectin have been carried out in adult and children subjects. The purpose of this research is to determine differences in serum cys-C and adiponectin levels between obese and normoweight adolescents and their correlation with blood pressure and obesity parameters.

Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight obese adolescents and 22 normoweight adolescents aged 15-18 years old participated in this research. After the measurement of blood pressure and obesity parameters, we examined serum cys-C levels as a biomarker for decreased early stage renal function and adiponectin, an antiinflammatory adipokine. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) based on serum cys-C is calculated using the eGFR-Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (eGFR-CKD EPI cys-C equation formula).

Results: Cys-C levels in obese adolescents were higher than normoweight adolescents. In contrast, serum adiponectin levels in obese adolescents were lower than for normoweight adolescents. Interestingly, eGFR based on serum cys-C showed no difference, although eGFR in obese adolescents was lower than normoweight adolescent. Serum cys-C was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Serum adiponectin was negatively correlated with SBP, DBP, BMI and WC. SBP is a predictor factor for the increase in serum cys-C and BMI is a predictor factor in the decrease in serum adiponectin levels.

Conclusion: There is a decline in early stage kidney function and inflammation in obese adolescents as evidenced by increased serum cyst-C levels and decreased serum adiponectin levels. These two biomarkers correlate with blood pressure, BMI and WC and play a role in the pathomechanism of early stage impairment of kidney function and inflammation in obese adolescents.

Keywords: adiponectin, body mass index, cystatin-C, early stage renal diseases, inflammation, systolic blood pressure


Full Text:

PDF

References


Ding W, Cheung WW, Mak RH. Impact of obesity on kidney function and blood pressure in children. World J Nephrol. 2015; 4(2): 223-9, CrossRef.

Mead E, Atkinson G, Richter B, Metzendorf MI, Baur L, Finer N, et al. Drug interventions for the treatment of obesity in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016; 0(11): 1-44, CrossRef.

Eknoyan G. Obesity and chronic kidney disease. Nefrologia. 2011; 31(4): 397-403, CrossRef.

Marwyne MNN, Loo CY, Halim AG, Norella K, Sulaiman T, Zaleha MI. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate using serum cystatin C in overweight and obese subjects. Med J Malaysia. 2011; 66(4): 313-7, article.

Niu H, Li Y, Li H, Chi Y, Zhuang M, Zhang T, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase 12 modulates high-fat-diet induced glomerular fibrogenesis and inflammation in a mouse model of obesity. Sci Rep. 2016; 6(20171): 1-14, CrossRef.

Zoccali C. Overweight, obesity and metabolic alterations in chronic kidney disease. Sec Biol Med Sci. 2009; 31(2): 17-31, article.

Rouhani M, Kelishadi R, Hashemipour M, Esmailzadeh A, Surkan PJ, Keshavarz A, et al. The impact of a low glycemic index diet on inflammatory markers and serum adiponectin concentration in adolescent overweight and obese girls : a randomized clinical trial. Horm Metab Res. 2016; 48(4): 251-6, CrossRef.

Rocha VZ, Folco EJ. Inflammatory concepts of obesity. Int J Inflam. 2011; 2011: 529061, CrossRef.

Jung Y, Kim D, Lim I. The Relation between GFR and obesity in children and adolescent obese. Korean Journals Pediatr. 2005; 48(11): 1219-24.

Marmarinos A, Garoufi A, Panagoulia A, Dimou S, Drakatos A, Paraskakis I, et al. Cystatin-C levels in healthy children and adolescents: Influence of age, gender, body mass index and blood pressure. Clin Biochem. 2016; 49(1): 150-3, CrossRef.

Ouchi N, Walsh K. Adiponectin anti inflammation. Clin Chim Acta. 2009; 380(1-2): 24-30, CrossRef.

Lafarge JC, Naour N, Clément K, Guerre-Millo M. Cathepsins and cystatin C in atherosclerosis and obesity. Biochimie. 2010; 92(11): 1580-6, CrossRef.

Papadopoulou-Marketou N, Skevaki C, Kosteria I, Peppa M, Chrousos GP, Papassotiriou I, et al. NGAL and cystatin C : two possible early markers of diabetic nephropathy in young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus : one year follow up. Hormones. 2015; 14(2): 232-40, CrossRef.

National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, clasification and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002; 39 (2 Suppl 1): S1-266, article.

Ito R, Yamakage H, Kotani K, Wada H, Otani S, Yonezawa K, et al. Comparison of cystatin C and creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate to predict coronary heart disease risk in Japanese patients with obesity and diabetes. Endocr J. 2015; 62(2): 201-7, CrossRef.

Asayama K, Hayashibe H, Dobashi K, Uchida N, Nakane T. Decrease in serum adiponectin level due to obesity and visceral fat accumulation in children. Obes Res. 2003; 11(9): 1072-9, CrossRef.

Diwan AG, Kuvalekar AA, Dharamsi S, Vora AM, Nikam VA, Ghadge AA. Correlation of serum adiponectin and leptin levels in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2018; 22(1): 93-9, CrossRef.

Jain V, Kumar A, Agarwala A, Vikram N, Ramakrishnan L. Adiponectin, interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity c-reactive protein levels in overweight/obese indian children. Indian Pediatr. 2017; 54(10): 848-50, CrossRef.

Medina-Bravo P, Meza-Santibanez R, Rosas-Fernandez P, Galvan-Duarte R, Saucedo-Garcia R, Velazquez-Lopez L, et al. Decrease in serum adiponectin levels associated with visceral fat accumulation independent of pubertal stage in children and adolescents. Arch Med Res. 2011; 42(2): 115-21, CrossRef.

Kazumi T, Kawaguchi A, Hirano T, Yoshino G. Serum adiponectin is associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein particle size in young healthy men. Metabolism. 2004; 53(5): 589-93, CrossRef.

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Standar Antropometri Penilaian Status Gizi Anak. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2010, article.

Ma WY, Yang CY, Shih SR, Hsteh HJ, Hung CS, Lin MS, et al. Measurement of waist circumference: midabdominal or iliac crest?. Diabetes Care. 2013; 36(6): 1660-6, CrossRef.

Sung RY, So HK, Choi KC, Nelson EAS, Li AM, Yin JAT, et al. Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio of hong kong chinese children. BMC Public Health. 2008; 8(1): 324, CrossRef.

Bashir R, Imtiaz S, Yasir M, Raza H, Mohsin S, Shah ALI. Effect of body mass index on serum cystatin C level in healthy subjects. PJMHS. 2010; 4(4): 17-20, article.

Chou YH, Pan SY, Yang CH, Lin SL. Stem cells and kidney regeneration. J Formos Med Assoc. 2014; 113(4): 201-9, CrossRef.

Panaich SS, Veeranna V, Bavishi C, Zalawadiya SK, Kottam A, Afonso L. Association of cystatin C with measures of obesity and its impact on cardiovascular events among healthy US adults. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2014; 12(9): 472-6, CrossRef.

Naour N, Fellahi S, Renucci JF, Poitou C, Rouault C, Basdevant A, et al. Potential contribution of adipose tissue to elevated serum cystatin C in human obesity. Obesity. 2009; 17(12): 2121-6, CrossRef.

Sur A, Pk M, Swain M, Mohapatra N. Study of relationship between kidney function and systolic blood pressure : new insights from cystatin C. Biochem Anal Biochem. 2015; 4(4): 1-5, CrossRef.

Peralta CA, Whooley MA, Ix JH, Shlipak MG. Kidney function and systolic blood pressure new insights from cystatin C: data from the heart and soul study. Am J Hypertens. 2009; 19(9): 939-46, CrossRef.

Salgado JV, Salgado BJ, Neves FA. Cystatin C may better reflect the effect of obesity on renal function. Obesity. 2012; 20(6): 1136, CrossRef.

Jovanovic M, Kavaric N, Gligorovic-barhanovic N, Skerovic V. Cystatin C in healthy middle-aged adults : a relationship with anthropometric and cardiometabolic parameters. J Heal Sci. 2016; 6(2): 105-111, CrossRef.

Francisco V, Pino J, Campos-cabaleiro V, Ruiz-Fernandez C, Mera A, Gonzalez-Gay MA, et al. Obesity, fat mass and immune system : role for leptin. Front Physiol. 2018; 9(640): 1-20, CrossRef.

Ignacio RMC, Kim C, Kim S. Lifestyle immunological profiling of obesity. J Lifestyle Med. 2014; 4(1): 1-7.

Zhou H, Zhao J, Zhang X. Inhibition of uncoupling protein 2 by genipin reduces insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2009; 486(1): 88-93, CrossRef.

Okauchi Y, Kishida K, Funahashi T, Noguchi M, Ogawa T, Ryo M, et al. Changes in serum adiponectin concentrations correlate with changes in BMI, waist circumference, and estimated visceral fat area in middle-aged general population. Diabetes Care. 2009; 32(10): 122, CrossRef.

Mamaghani F, Zarghami N, Maleki MJ, Pourhassan-Moghaddam M HF. Variation of adiponectin levels in normal and obese subjects: possible correlation with lipid profiles. Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2009; 3: 170-8, article.

Yin C, Chu H, Li H, Xiao Y. Plasma Sfrp5 and adiponectin levels in relation to blood pressure among obese children. J Hum Hypertens. 2016; 31: 284-91, CrossRef.

Kim DH, Kim C, Ding EL, Townsend MK, Lipsitz LA. Adiponectin levels and the risk of hypertension : a systematic review and meta-analysis. Adiponectin. 2013; 62(1): 27-32, CrossRef.

Rojas E, Rodríguez-Molina D, Bolli P, Israili ZH, Faría J, Fidilio E, et al. The role of adiponectin in endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2014; 16(8): 1-8, CrossRef.

Zhao T, Zhao J. Genetic effects of adiponectin on blood lipids and blood pressure. Clin Endocrinol. 2011; 74(2): 214-22, CrossRef.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v4i3.109

Indexed by:

                     

                    

                    


Cell and BioPharmaceutical Institute